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构建自定义镜像并优化dockerfile文件

发布时间:2022/9/1 3:59:37

目录
  • 一.系统环境
  • 二.前言
  • 三.镜像构建步骤
  • 四.dockerfile文件常用指令
    • 4.1 dockerfile文件常用指令
    • 4.2 RUN、CMD、ENTRYPOINT的区别
  • 五.构建centos镜像
    • 5.1 构建一个可以使用ifconfig和ip a命令的centos镜像
    • 5.2 优化5.1构建的镜像
    • 5.3 构建centos镜像,在构建文件中指定运行用户,环境变量,数据卷
    • 5.4 构建可以ssh的centos镜像
  • 六.构建nginx镜像
    • 6.1 构建一个自定义index.html文件的Nginx镜像
  • 七.参考文档

一.系统环境

服务器版本 docker软件版本 CPU架构
CentOS Linux release 7.4.1708 (Core) Docker version 20.10.12 x86_64

二.前言

创建容器需要镜像,镜像可以从各种Docker镜像仓库中下载,但是有时候镜像仓库里下载的镜像并不能满足我们的要求,这时我们可以构建自定义镜像满足我们的要求。

构建镜像需要我们编写Dockerfile,Dockerfile是由一组指令组成的文件,其每条指令对应Linux中的一条命令,Docker程序通过读取Dockerfile中的指令最终生成镜像。

三.镜像构建步骤

一般镜像构建步骤如下:

  1. 按照需求编写一个dockerfile文件
  2. docker build -f dockerfile 构建成为一个新镜像
  3. docker run 运行新镜像
  4. docker push 推送新镜像到镜像仓库给别人下载使用

四.dockerfile文件常用指令

4.1 dockerfile文件常用指令

FROM 基础镜像

MAINTAINER 镜像是谁写的,一般是姓名加邮箱

RUN 镜像构建的时候需要运行的命令

ADD 往基础镜像里加入文件,会自动解压文件

COPY 类似ADD,将我们文件拷贝到镜像中

WORKDIR 镜像的工作目录

VOLUME 挂载的目录,在一些程序里,需要持久化一些数据,比如数据库中存储数据的文件夹就需要单独处理,可以通过数据卷来处理这些问题。

EXPOSE 指定向外暴露的端口

CMD 指定这个容器启动的时候要运行的命令,如果有多个CMD指令,则只有最后一个生效

ENTRYPOINT 指定这个容器启动的时候要运行的命令,可以追加命, 这个会与CMD弄混淆

ONBUILD 当构建一个被继承dockerfile 这个时候就会运行ONBUILD

ENV 构建的时候设置环境变量

4.2 RUN、CMD、ENTRYPOINT的区别

RUN 会在现有的基础上新添一层layer,创建一个新的image。例如,它通常用于安装软件包。
CMD 设置默认命令或参数,可以在 docker 容器运行时从命令行覆盖。
ENTRYPOINT 配置将作为可执行文件运行的容器。

RUN有两种形式:

RUN <command> (shell form),比如:RUN apt-get update && apt-get install -y
RUN ["executable", "param1", "param2"] (exec form),比如:RUN ["apt-get", "install", "python3"]

CMD有三种形式:

CMD ["executable","param1","param2"] (exec form, preferred)

CMD ["param1","param2"] ,比如:CMD echo "Hello world" 

CMD command param1 param2 (shell form)

ENTRYPOINT有两种形式:

ENTRYPOINT ["executable", "param1", "param2"] (exec form, preferred),比如:ENTRYPOINT ["/bin/echo", "Hello"]

ENTRYPOINT command param1 param2 (shell form)

五.构建centos镜像

5.1 构建一个可以使用ifconfig和ip a命令的centos镜像

查询ifconfig命令和ip a命令属于哪个安装包

[root@k8smaster ~]# rpm -qf `which ifconfig`
net-tools-2.0-0.22.20131004git.el7.x86_64

[root@k8smaster ~]# rpm -qf `which ip a`
/usr/bin/which: no a in (/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/root/bin)
iproute-3.10.0-87.el7.x86_64

创建Dockerfile文件

[root@k8smaster ~]# cat Dockerfile 
#FROM指定基础镜像为hub.c.163.com/library/centos:latest
FROM hub.c.163.com/library/centos:latest
#MAINTAINER指定作者为LZ
MAINTAINER LZ
#RUN命令安装net-tools,iproute
RUN yum -y install net-tools
RUN yum -y install iproute
#CMD指定这个容器启动的时候要运行的命令为/bin/bash
CMD ["/bin/bash"]

根据Dockerfile文件构建镜像

docker build构建镜像,-t centos:v1表示生成镜像的名字 .当前目录,会自动找到Dockerfile文件

[root@k8smaster ~]# docker build -t centos:v1 .
Sending build context to Docker daemon  634.6MB
Step 1/5 : FROM hub.c.163.com/library/centos:latest
 ---> 328edcd84f1b
......
Successfully tagged centos:v1

查看最新构建成功的镜像

[root@k8smaster ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY                                                        TAG        IMAGE ID       CREATED              SIZE
centos                                                            v1         95a27e59cc5b   About a minute ago   486MB

查看镜像centos:v1的创建历史

[root@k8smaster ~]# docker history centos:v1
IMAGE          CREATED         CREATED BY                                      SIZE      COMMENT
95a27e59cc5b   2 minutes ago   /bin/sh -c #(nop)  CMD ["/bin/bash"]            0B        
c446bac1eae1   2 minutes ago   /bin/sh -c yum -y install iproute               148MB     
2f8fe7e8adfe   3 minutes ago   /bin/sh -c yum -y install net-tools             145MB     
1812802531f1   3 minutes ago   /bin/sh -c #(nop)  MAINTAINER LZ                0B        
328edcd84f1b   4 years ago     /bin/sh -c #(nop)  CMD ["/bin/bash"]            0B        
<missing>      4 years ago     /bin/sh -c #(nop)  LABEL name=CentOS Base Im…   0B        
<missing>      4 years ago     /bin/sh -c #(nop) ADD file:63492ba809361c51e…   193MB     

--rm生成临时容器,在容器里ifconfig和ip a命令都可以使用了

[root@k8smaster ~]# docker run -it --rm --name=test centos:v1
[root@2519d33cd64c /]# ifconfig 
eth0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 172.17.0.4  netmask 255.255.0.0  broadcast 172.17.255.255
        ether 02:42:ac:11:00:04  txqueuelen 0  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 7  bytes 578 (578.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>  mtu 65536
        inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
        loop  txqueuelen 1  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

[root@2519d33cd64c /]# ip a
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: tunl0@NONE: <NOARP> mtu 1480 qdisc noop state DOWN group default qlen 1
    link/ipip 0.0.0.0 brd 0.0.0.0
123: eth0@if124: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP group default 
    link/ether 02:42:ac:11:00:04 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff link-netnsid 0
    inet 172.17.0.4/16 brd 172.17.255.255 scope global eth0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
[root@2519d33cd64c /]# exit
exit

删除新构建的镜像

[root@k8smaster ~]# docker rmi centos:v1
Untagged: centos:v1
Deleted: sha256:95a27e59cc5b19c0c72d065e43e30627ee5ca46a71d3cf8cfed4ffa266809fae
Deleted: sha256:c446bac1eae161480d0b823fcfc7a4c6e8d4c58a4502750539ac796931acd6b0
Deleted: sha256:77d5ccf992f3e869abfb19b47f832f6e106c6724aabfd034e50525ef11fe8603
Deleted: sha256:2f8fe7e8adfe10d2536238adfbadc75e8cc51e3b32fef3486ee5dfcf81b56a32
Deleted: sha256:d736137a9b93443939b0ed77024b28d6908e9352297c7e578fce4ba0c2f8c54c
Deleted: sha256:1812802531f138dd688219ebc5777fc1bffd51e2db52e1e99fee0a84cce322f5

5.2 优化5.1构建的镜像

下载yum源

[root@k8smaster ~]# wget ftp://ftp.rhce.cc/k8s/*
--2021-12-31 15:51:29--  ftp://ftp.rhce.cc/k8s/*
           => “.listing”
正在解析主机 ftp.rhce.cc (ftp.rhce.cc)... 101.37.152.41
......

[root@k8smaster ~]# ls
CentOS-Base.repo   epel.repo    k8s.repo    docker-ce.repo  

把4个repo文件打包压缩

#归档压缩文件,并删除原文件
[root@k8smaster ~]# tar zcf repo.tar.gz *.repo --remove-files

[root@k8smaster ~]# ls
repo.tar.gz       

查看压缩包里的文件列表

[root@k8smaster ~]# tar tf repo.tar.gz 
CentOS-Base.repo
docker-ce.repo
epel.repo
k8s.repo

编写Dockerfile文件
注意:多写一个RUN命令会多生成一层(layer),镜像会变大,有的docker版本不能写为RUN yum -y install net-tools iproute

#ADD repo.tar.gz /etc/yum.repos.d/ ADD命令可以把文件从物理机拷贝到容器里,COPY也可以,但是ADD可以自动解压文件,COPY不行
#ADD只能拷贝当前目录下的文件,不能写为ADD /opt/repo.tar.gz /etc/yum.repo.d/,这样会报错:找不到文件
[root@k8smaster ~]# cat Dockerfile1 
FROM hub.c.163.com/library/centos:latest
MAINTAINER LZ
#删除基础镜像里自带的repo文件
Run rm -rf /etc/yum.repos.d/*
#把宿主机里的repo.tar.gz文件拷贝到/etc/yum.repos.d/目录下,并自动解压缩
ADD repo.tar.gz /etc/yum.repos.d/
#安装net-tools和iproute,并清除yum安装缓存
RUN yum -y install net-tools && \
    yum -y install iproute && \
    yum clean all
CMD ["/bin/bash"]

构建镜像

#-f 指定构建镜像的Dockerfile文件
[root@k8smaster ~]# docker build -t centos:v2 . -f Dockerfile1
Sending build context to Docker daemon  634.6MB
Step 1/6 : FROM hub.c.163.com/library/centos:latest
......
Successfully tagged centos:v2

查看新构建的镜像,新镜像比5.1章节构建的镜像体积小

[root@k8smaster ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY                                                        TAG        IMAGE ID       CREATED          SIZE
centos                                                            v2         8077d58cb9b4   32 seconds ago   216MB

查看镜像创建历史

[root@k8smaster ~]# docker history centos:v2
IMAGE          CREATED              CREATED BY                                      SIZE      COMMENT
8077d58cb9b4   56 seconds ago       /bin/sh -c #(nop)  CMD ["/bin/bash"]            0B        
3c33ca486f1f   56 seconds ago       /bin/sh -c yum -y install net-tools &&     y…   23.6MB    
2331e6a96f1f   About a minute ago   /bin/sh -c #(nop) ADD file:53e452249ee7bf44e…   6.04kB    
227b560a5ae3   About a minute ago   /bin/sh -c rm -rf /etc/yum.repos.d/*            0B        
8309f6dd578f   About a minute ago   /bin/sh -c #(nop)  MAINTAINER LZ                0B        
328edcd84f1b   4 years ago          /bin/sh -c #(nop)  CMD ["/bin/bash"]            0B        
<missing>      4 years ago          /bin/sh -c #(nop)  LABEL name=CentOS Base Im…   0B        
<missing>      4 years ago          /bin/sh -c #(nop) ADD file:63492ba809361c51e…   193MB     

5.3 构建centos镜像,在构建文件中指定运行用户,环境变量,数据卷

编写Dockerfile文件,在构建文件中指定运行用户,环境变量,数据卷

[root@k8smaster ~]# cat Dockerfile2
FROM centos:v2
MAINTAINER LZ
#创建用户lz
RUN useradd lz
#以lz用户运行
USER lz
#设定环境变量xx=147,yy=258
ENV xx=147
ENV yy=258
#定义数据卷
VOLUME ["/test","/test1"]
CMD ["/bin/bash"]

构建镜像

[root@k8smaster ~]# docker build -t uevc:v1 . -f Dockerfile2
Sending build context to Docker daemon  634.6MB
Step 1/8 : FROM centos:v2
 ---> 8077d58cb9b4
......
Step 8/8 : CMD ["/bin/bash"]
 ---> Running in 94d69df83e22
Removing intermediate container 94d69df83e22
 ---> e8416a912217
Successfully built e8416a912217
Successfully tagged uevc:v1

查看新创建的镜像

[root@k8smaster ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY                                                        TAG        IMAGE ID       CREATED         SIZE
uevc                                                              v1         e8416a912217   6 seconds ago   216MB

创建临时容器

[root@k8smaster ~]# docker run -it --rm uevc:v1
#查看定义的环境变量
[lz@1f8b1eb2cabb /]$ echo $xx $yy
147 258

#可以看到容器默认是以lz用户登录的
[lz@1f8b1eb2cabb /]$ ls /test /test1/
/test:

/test1/:

[lz@1f8b1eb2cabb /]$ exit
exit

创建临时容器,以root用户运行容器

#以指定用户运行
[root@k8smaster ~]# docker run -it --rm -u root uevc:v1
[root@60ca5ee61798 /]# id
uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root)
[root@60ca5ee61798 /]# 
[root@60ca5ee61798 /]# exit
exit

创建临时容器,-e xx=qwe -e yy=asd会覆盖镜像里定义的环境变量

#环境变量以 -e指定的为准
[root@k8smaster ~]# docker run -it --rm -u root -e xx=qwe -e yy=asd uevc:v1
[root@2f727b99e12f /]# echo $xx $yy
qwe asd
[root@2f727b99e12f /]# 
[root@2f727b99e12f /]# exit
exit

5.4 构建可以ssh的centos镜像

查看ssh的运行进程

[root@k8smaster ~]# ps -ef | grep ssh
root        943      1  0 10:53 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/sshd -D
root       1552    943  0 10:53 ?        00:00:00 sshd: root@pts/0
root      56191   1613  0 16:05 pts/0    00:00:00 grep --color=auto ssh

查看ssh的安装包

[root@k8smaster ~]# rpm -qf `which ssh `
openssh-clients-7.4p1-11.el7.x86_64

[root@k8smaster ~]# rpm -qf `which sshd`
openssh-server-7.4p1-11.el7.x86_64

[root@k8smaster ~]# rpm -qa | grep ssh
openssh-clients-7.4p1-11.el7.x86_64
libssh2-1.4.3-10.el7_2.1.x86_64
openssh-server-7.4p1-11.el7.x86_64
openssh-7.4p1-11.el7.x86_64
sshpass-1.06-2.el7.x86_64

查看ssh-keygen的帮助

[root@k8smaster ~]# ssh-keygen --help
unknown option -- -
usage: ssh-keygen [-q] [-b bits] [-t dsa | ecdsa | ed25519 | rsa | rsa1]
                  [-N new_passphrase] [-C comment] [-f output_keyfile]
       ssh-keygen -p [-P old_passphrase] [-N new_passphrase] [-f keyfile]
       ssh-keygen -i [-m key_format] [-f input_keyfile]
       ssh-keygen -e [-m key_format] [-f input_keyfile]
       ssh-keygen -y [-f input_keyfile]
       ssh-keygen -c [-P passphrase] [-C comment] [-f keyfile]
       ssh-keygen -l [-v] [-E fingerprint_hash] [-f input_keyfile]
       ssh-keygen -B [-f input_keyfile]
       ssh-keygen -D pkcs11
       ssh-keygen -F hostname [-f known_hosts_file] [-l]
       ssh-keygen -H [-f known_hosts_file]
       ssh-keygen -R hostname [-f known_hosts_file]
       ssh-keygen -r hostname [-f input_keyfile] [-g]
       ssh-keygen -G output_file [-v] [-b bits] [-M memory] [-S start_point]
       ssh-keygen -T output_file -f input_file [-v] [-a rounds] [-J num_lines]
                  [-j start_line] [-K checkpt] [-W generator]
       ssh-keygen -s ca_key -I certificate_identity [-h] [-n principals]
                  [-O option] [-V validity_interval] [-z serial_number] file ...
       ssh-keygen -L [-f input_keyfile]
       ssh-keygen -A
       ssh-keygen -k -f krl_file [-u] [-s ca_public] [-z version_number]
                  file ...
       ssh-keygen -Q -f krl_file file ...

编写Dockerfile文件

[root@k8smaster ~]# cat Dockerfile_ssh
FROM centos:v2
MAINTAINER LZ
#安装openssh,创建ssh公钥私钥,给root用户修改密码为qweasd,UseDNS no表示去掉远程ssh连接时的DNS域名解析
RUN yum -y install openssh-server openssh-clients && \
    ssh-keygen -t rsa -f /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key && \
    ssh-keygen -t ecdsa -f /etc/ssh/ssh_host_ecdsa_key && \
    ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -f /etc/ssh/ssh_host_ed25519_key && \
    echo qweasd | passwd --stdin root && \
    sed -i '/UseDNS/cUseDNS no' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
#暴露22号端口    
EXPOSE 22
#运行ssh
CMD ["/usr/sbin/sshd","-D"]

构建镜像

[root@k8smaster ~]# docker build -t centos:ssh . -f Dockerfile_ssh
Sending build context to Docker daemon  634.6MB
Step 1/5 : FROM centos:v2
 ---> 8077d58cb9b4
......
Step 5/5 : CMD ["/usr/sbin/sshd","-D"]
 ---> Running in bdd4b00e3402
Removing intermediate container bdd4b00e3402
 ---> 86e7b8ecb3ab
Successfully built 86e7b8ecb3ab
Successfully tagged centos:ssh

使用centos:ssh镜像运行容器

[root@k8smaster ~]# docker run -dit --restart=always --name=centos_ssh centos:ssh
d12172a25af5726cfc209d0ff3af803fbc403b617df04a013f4cae85423d4d44

查看容器IP为172.17.0.5

[root@k8smaster ~]# docker exec centos_ssh ip a
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
29: eth0@if30: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP group default 
    link/ether 02:42:ac:11:00:05 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff link-netnsid 0
    inet 172.17.0.5/16 brd 172.17.255.255 scope global eth0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

直接ssh连接容器,root密码为qweasd

[root@k8smaster ~]# ssh 172.17.0.5
The authenticity of host '172.17.0.5 (172.17.0.5)' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:wbRiKPZgpVAg/plN+HixD2GHPx37fzbKBajpU8m5wpY.
ECDSA key fingerprint is MD5:d0:33:07:03:f8:aa:fc:b5:41:d3:77:2b:75:c9:fe:2e.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '172.17.0.5' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
root@172.17.0.5's password: 

#成功连接到容器
[root@d12172a25af5 ~]# grep DNS /etc/ssh/sshd_config 
UseDNS no

[root@d12172a25af5 ~]# ip a
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
29: eth0@if30: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP group default 
    link/ether 02:42:ac:11:00:05 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff link-netnsid 0
    inet 172.17.0.5/16 brd 172.17.255.255 scope global eth0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

[root@d12172a25af5 ~]# exit
logout
Connection to 172.17.0.5 closed.

六.构建nginx镜像

6.1 构建一个自定义index.html文件的Nginx镜像

创建nginx的首页文件

[root@k8smaster ~]# cat index.html 
<p>
hello gogogoogo<br>
<p/>

编写nginx的Dockerfile文件

[root@k8smaster ~]# cat Dockerfile_nginx
FROM centos:v2
MAINTAINER LZ
#安装Nginx
RUN yum -y install nginx
#复制index.html文件到/usr/share/nginx/html/下
COPY index.html /usr/share/nginx/html/
#暴露80端口
EXPOSE 80
#运行Nginx
CMD ["nginx","-g","daemon off;"]

构建nginx镜像

[root@k8smaster ~]# docker build -t nginx:v1 . -f Dockerfile_nginx
Sending build context to Docker daemon  634.6MB
Step 1/6 : FROM centos:v2
 ---> 8077d58cb9b4
......
Successfully built 5ea781a8ccd8
Successfully tagged nginx:v1

运行nginx容器,当修改容器里的配置文件,需要重启容器才能生效

[root@k8smaster ~]# docker run -dit --restart=always --name=nginx -p 8080:80 nginx:v1
57322f1ce0c62d7c906b875da60fada3e6381a1b988ed28a14f906ffb21db2f2

访问nginx

[root@k8smaster ~]# curl http://192.168.110.137:8080
<p>
hello gogogoogo<br>
<p/>

七.参考文档

https://codewithyury.com/docker-run-vs-cmd-vs-entrypoint/#:~:text=In a nutshell&text=CMD sets default command and,will run as an executable

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